Predicative expression


date-created:: 2023-04-22

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Predicative expression - Wikipedia


  • Title: Predicative expression - Wikipedia
  • Tags: #grammar, #English
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  • Unambiguous distinction between "(clause) predicate 謂語" and "predicative (expression) 表語", both nouns.

Highlights & Notes

  • A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate. 表語是一個子句謂語的一部分。

    • It is an expression that typically follows a copula or linking verb, e.g. be, seem, appear, or 通常出現在系詞(be)或連繫動詞(例如seem、appear)之後,或
    • that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc. [1|1] 作為某些動詞(例如call、make、name)的第二補語出現。
  • The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative nominals (also predicate nominals). 表語最常見的類型是表語形容詞(又稱謂語性形容詞)和表語名詞(又稱謂語性名詞)。

  • The main trait of all predicative expressions is that they serve to express a property that is assigned to a "subject", whereby this subject is usually the clause subject, but at times it can be the clause object.[2|2]  所有表語的主要特徵是它們用於表達其賦給「主體」的屬性,而該主體通常是子句的主語,但有時也可以是子句的賓語

  • A primary distinction is drawn between predicative (also predicate) and attributive expressions. 表語和定語之間有明顯區別。

  • Further, predicative expressions are typically not clause arguments, and they are also typically not clause adjuncts. There is hence a three-way distinction between predicative expressions, arguments, and adjuncts. 此外,表語通常不是子句的論元,並且通常也不是子句的修飾語。 因此,表語、論元和修飾語互不相同。

  • The terms predicative expression on the one hand, and subject complement and object complement on the other hand overlap in meaning to a large extent. 表語的涵義,以及主語補足語賓語補足語二者的涵義,在很大程度上是重疊的。

  • The formulations "over the subject" and "over the object" indicate that the predicative expression is expressing a property that is assigned to the subject or to the object. [4|4] 「描述主語」、「描述賓語」是指表語表達某種賦予主語或賓語的屬性。

The idea was ridiculous. 這想法很荒唐。–形容詞作表語描述主語
He seems nice. 他看起來不錯。–形容詞作表語描述主語
Bob is a postman. 鮑勃是一名郵遞員。–名詞短語作表語描述主語
They were all happy campers. 他們都是開心的露營者。–名詞短語作表語描述主語
That shrimp dish made him sick. 那碟蝦讓他生病了。–形容詞作表語描述賓語
We painted the door white. 我們把門刷成了白色。–形容詞作表語描述賓語
They elected him president. 他們將他選舉為主席。–名詞作表語描述賓語
They called Jill a thief. 他們稱吉兒是一個小偷。–名詞短語作表語描述賓語

  • For example, the predicative expression a thief in the last sentence serves to assign to Jill the property of being a thief. 例如,最後一句中的「a thief(一個小偷)」是賦予「Jill(吉爾)」作為「一名小偷」的屬性。
  • 儘管表語最常由形容詞或名詞性成分充當,但大多數詞類都可作表語。
  • Predicative nominals over subjects are also called predicate nominatives, a term borrowed from Latin grammars and indicating the morphological case that such expressions bear (in Latin).

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  • Glasp vs Readwise: Which Is the Best Knowledge Management Tool?
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