The most up-to-date, comprehensive, and authoritative English grammar, bar none, is the Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, 2002. I will refer to this book as CamGEL.


Necessarily and logically true.
The term, taken from 'modal logic, comes from the Greek word alétheia 'truth', and is concerned with the necessary truth of propositions. It is sometimes used in the analysis of modal verbs, though most grammarians include this meaning under 'epistemic' modality. The distinction between alethic and epistemic modality, when it is made, is that alethic modality is concerned with logical deduction (e.g. If she's a widow, her husband must have died), whereas epistemic modality, relates to confident inference (e.g. They were married over fifty years—she must miss him).

Predicate vs. Predicative

Absolute verbs 不明示受詞的「絕對」動詞


An influential grammar on Mandarin Chinese I've read:

Sentence components; parts of speech

Usage of 和

Is this good Chinese?